Part of our course is to demonstrate how students should receive daily, systematic phonics instruction explicitly in the early grades. Parents would ask “Why is the fact that reading skills need to be taught through phonics awareness?”
Our teachers believe that Phonemic awareness is the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in words. We know that a student's skill in phonemic awareness is a good predictor of later reading success or difficulty.
An example of how we use phonics during a lesson
1. Explicit statement of learning intentions – We Are Learning To…
e.g. “Today we are learning to blend sounds together to read new words, using the sounds /s/, /a/, /t/ and /p/. You will be able to read more words in books by yourself.”
例子：“今天我们学习把不同的读音混合在一起，用/s/， /a/， /t/和/p/发音来读新单词。你能够凭自己读出书中更多的单词。”
Students need to know what they are supposed to learn and why they are learning it. It helps them to retain focus and motivation.
2. Explicit statement of success criteria – What I’m Looking For…
e.g. “By the end of this phonics lesson I want you to be able to read accurately at least ten words containing the sounds/phonemes: /a/ and /t/.”
Students need to know how they will know if they have learned the information or skill. Success criteria challenge students, help them to monitor their own progress and motivate them to set personal goals.
3. Revision of prior learning
Revision helps students to ‘tune in’, activates their prior knowledge, consolidates their pre-requisite knowledge and skills and supports the movement of knowledge and skills from their short-term memory to their long-term memory.
i. The direct instruction method, e.g. Teacher: “When your eyes see ‘c’, your mouth says…”, Students: “/k/”
ii. A Phoneme Spotter story e.g. Find all the words in the story that contain the sound /s/
i. 直接教学法，例如: 老师:“当你的眼睛看到‘c’时，你的嘴在说……”，学生:“/k/”
4. Explicit teaching (teacher show and tell)
The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model, Pearson & Gallagher (1983), should be used to develop student confidence:
责任模型的逐步释放(Pearson & Gallagher(1983))，应该被用来培养学生的信心:
i. Firstly, ‘I do’ – the teacher explains the knowledge and models the skill, strategy or process, thinking aloud.
ii. Secondly, ‘We do’ – the student is given guided practice. This initially takes the form of working with the teacher step-by-step through examples but can progress to work in pairs or small groups. Check for understanding by calling on some non-volunteers. Additional examples should be provided for weaker students and extensions for more able students.
iii. Thirdly, ‘You do’ – after success has been achieved in guided practice, the student is required to independently use the information/skills/strategies. The student should be working in the ‘zone of proximal development’, therefore independent tasks should be individualised. An able student, for example, might be required to read or write words containing more sounds or syllables than that required of peers.
iii. 第三，“You do”——在指导实践中取得成功后，要求学生独立使用信息/技能/策略。学生应该在“最新发展区”学习应用，因此，要个性化设置每个人的任务。例如，一个有能力的学生可能要读或写比同龄人更多的声音或音节的单词。
After the teacher explains a comprehension “skill,” students go off to practice it on books at their supposed individual reading levels—easy enough for them to read on their own or with minimal help.
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